SOCIAL

HEALTH

The Municipal Health Office (MHO) directly provides basic health services to the people covering primary health care such as maternal and child care, family planning, nutrition, immunization program, micronutrient supplementation, communicable and non-communicable disease control services, dental care services, environmental sanitation and health education. The Rural Health Units of the municipality are composed of one Main Health Center and three Barangay Health Stations (BHS). The Main Health Center (MHC) serves the whole municipality and is under administrative and technical supervision of the LGU. The MHC is a Basic Emergency Maternal and Obstetrical New Born Care (BEMONC) facility and complies with Phil Health accreditation standards for OPB package, maternity care package and TB- DOTS package. The MHC is located in the urban center at barangay San Antonio in a co-location of the LGU main building at the ground floor area.
Health human resources of the MHO is composed of one (1) medical doctor, one (1) nurse, one (1) rural health midwife, one (1) rural sanitary inspector. The pool of volunteers composed of thirty (30) Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) and eight (8) Barangay Nutrition Scholars assists the LGU medical personnel in the delivery of community health services.
Prevalence of underweight and severely underweight 0-59 is at 4.7% in 2019 compared to 3.1% in 2018. Among other health development indicator is the percentage of fully immunized child at a rate of 98% in 2019 with a slight increase from a rate of 95% in 2018. An increase of 5% for the percentage of infants (0-6 months old) exclusively breastfeed from the health data in 2018 at a rate of 60%.
Crude Birth Rate remains in the range of 24.00 to 10.00 since 2014 to 2019 with an average annual population growth rate of 4.21%. The common causes of infant deaths are still pneumonia, immaturity, diarrhea, and respiratory distress syndrome. Maternal mortality rate was recorded only in 2016 at one (1) case. Morbidity causes for all age groups include acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, diseases of the heart, influenza, and various accidents. The leading causes of deaths are cardiovascular diseases, pneumonia, different forms of malignancies, and accidents.
Basic intervention strategies in maternal care program are prenatal, natal, postnatal and family planning services. Prenatal services in public health facilities include monitoring of women’s weights, blood pressure, urine, haemoglobin/haematocrit, dental check-up, and tetanus toxoid vaccinations. The contraceptive prevalence (including the current users of family planning) is 37%.
The expanded program on immunization, control of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infection, the nutrition program, and dental health program are the interventions in child care. Fully immunized children is at 98% rate in 2019, and only 65% of infants (0-6months old) exclusively breastfeed. The strategies adapted in the nutrition program include micronutrient supplementation, food fortification, and dietary diversification. Food supplementation is still implemented by Local Government Units including the barangay LGUs, schools and non-government organizations.
In 2019, the municipality recorded eighteen (18) positive cases of dengue (10 males & 8 Females) with no casualty.

EDUCATION, CULTURE, AND SPORTS

Tunga’s learning institutions is from preparatory to secondary education inclusive of its senior high school. There are four (4) public elementary schools, one (1) public high school, and one private school with preparatory to elementary level.
The public elementary schools in the Tunga district is comprised of one (1) central school, three (3) elementary schools, one (1) high school up to senior high, and one primary schools dispersed in all eight (8) barangays of the municipality. These school sites are mainly located in the built-up areas of urban and rural barangays and have an aggregate land area of about 3.664 hectares. In terms of site ownership, none of the school sites are titled to the DepEd, zero or no site are owned by the LGU while one (1) site is in privately owned land.
In 2018, the Municipal Government appropriated PhP 558,632.57 from the Special Education Fund (SEF) to support the education services in the municipality. Of the total appropriations, 91.33% or PhP 510,221.89 was expended.
The Schools Division of Tunga, Leyte, with its 1,414 elementary, 1,226 junior high school and 972 senior high school public school learners strongly adhered to the thrusts and design of the Transforming the School Education System Project with focus on access to primary and secondary education, improvement of the quality of education and strengthening of the governance and delivery of education services.
The elementary enrolment showed an increase from school year 2015-2016 to school year 2016-2017 by a rate of 1.65% and a decrease in school year 2017-2018 at a rate of 0.21%. Per planning standards, only a maximum of 2% decrease is allowed with at least 2% increase in the said performance indicator. The increase/decrease of enrolment is attributed to the migration of families and/or transfer of parent’s workplace.
The Junior High School enrolment, experienced a decrease of 2.77% between school year 2016-2017 to school year 2017-2018. On the other hand, for the Senior High School in increases a massive 207.59% from the period of school year 2016-2017 to school year 2017-2018. The increases across the school years were due to the advocacy of adopt-a-pupil/student program, home visitation, intensive campaign for enrolment, monitoring and partnership with 4Ps Program, regular meeting with the Parent-Teachers Association, “No Collection” Policy, Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM), Oplan Balik Eskwela Campaign and the available “STRANDS” for senior high schools offered by Gregorio C. Catenza Nat’l High School.
The increase in the senior high school enrolment is a positive outgrowth of the effort made by the school division with the support of the local government unit (LGU) and other key stakeholders in ensuring that grade 10 completers move to grade 11 and grade 11 to grade 12.
It can be assumed that a large number of those 12-15 age range captured by the GCCNHS are actually coming from the neighbouring barangays of Barugo, Carigara and Jaro considering the convenience of going to a much nearer school than travelling to the schools of their mother municipalities.
The number of enrolees of the lone private school of Tunga, Leyte that caters primary and elementary education was seventy-one (71) in SY 2017-2018. The zero-dropout rate in the elementary level for three successive school years is commendable. This means a well-managed school-home-community relationship, Adopt-a-Child Program, intensified guidance program, and close monitoring of attendance. The division aimed for a zero-dropout rate in the secondary level as provided in DepEd Order No. 74, s. 2010, the guidelines on mainstreaming the dropout reduction program in (DORP) in the public secondary schools. However, statistics showed that for the past three school years, the drop out numbers was fluctuating. This demonstrated the learners’ lack of interest in going to school due to financial and family problems.

SOCIAL WELFARE

Social welfare and development concerns are directed towards improving the quality of life of the poor and disadvantage sectors. Several programs ranging from nutrition, health care, shelter, livelihood and employment assistance and initiatives for the welfare and protection of children, women, elderly, disabled and other disadvantage sectors of society and relief and rehabilitation during disasters are done by the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office and local NGOs. There are eight (8) Day Care Centers in the municipality operated and maintained by the barangays Day Care Workers in all eight (8) barangays.
Poverty remains the main development challenge in the municipality. The proportion of households with income below poverty line is 27.98% in 2018, which is higher compared to 22.80% in 2015. The highest proportion of poor households can be found in Astorga, Balire, and Banawang. These barangays are geographically remote rural barangays. The lowest proportion of poor households is in Santo Niño, San Antonio and San Roque. In 2018, there are 364 4P’s household beneficiaries in the municipality which is 22.79% of the total households.
The household population of Tunga totalled to 7,584 persons in 2015, which is 16.5 percent higher than its count in 2010 at 6,512 persons. The entire population of Tunga in 2015 comprised of household population.
The number of households in 2015 reached 1,597 higher by 274 households from 1,323 in 2010. The average household size in Tunga declined from 4.9 in 2010 to 4.7 in 2015. This municipality posted the lowest number of households in Leyte in 2015.
The estimated total land area of Tunga was 7.70 square kilometers as per data from the Land Management Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. However, the Local Sangguniang Bayan passed and approved a resolution requesting the DENR-LMB to consider the approved cadastral area of Tunga, Leyte which is 879.4354 hectares or 8.794354 square kilometres in accordance with the provisions of Act. 2259 as amended under the direction of the Director of Lands by Bureau of Lands S.P. VIII-1(B). The resulting population density in 2015 posted at 985 persons per square kilometer, higher than in 2000 and 2010 at 794 and 846 persons per square kilometer, respectively. Tunga recorded as the smallest municipality in Leyte in terms of land area and the most densely populated municipality in Leyte since 2000.
Of the 8 barangays of Tunga, Barangay Santo Niño (Pob.) registered the biggest population with 1,166 persons in 2015 or 15.4% of the municipality’s total population. The remaining barangays which completed the top four (4) barangays in terms of population were San Pedro (1,132), San Roque (1,059) and Astorga (Upart) (1,050). These barangays also recorded with the highest number of households in the municipality in 2015.
Meanwhile, Barangay Banawang recorded the smallest population in 2015 with 586 persons which accounted 7.7% of the total population of Tunga. The remaining barangays which completed the bottom four (4) barangays in terms of population were Balire (818), San Antonio (Pob.) (846) and San Vicente (Pob.) (927). The top three (3) fastest growing barangays of Tunga in terms of population growth rate from 2010 to 2015 were Astorga (Upart) (5.09%), Banawang (1.59 %) and Balire (4.26%). The rest of the barangays which completed the top five fastest growing barangays were San Pedro and San Vicente (Pob.) with PGRs of 3.10% and 2.62%, respectively.
Population growth and displaced households pushes the housing sub-sector to a critical situation. The backlog is computed to be 716 units. It is composed of the displaced, totalling to 186, the doubled-up or sharers, numbering some 0 households, and 0 homeless. These data reveal that 9.38% of the housing stock comprises the displaced units, 0% are doubled-up, while 0% are homeless. The displaced units/households are made up of households presently occupying danger areas, sites to be used for government infrastructure projects, households issued with court orders for eviction or those that are potential for displacement due to climate change and other hazards. With an average annual growth rate of 2.93%, an additional of 530 new households is expected to make up the future need within the period covered by the Local Shelter Plan 2019-2027.
There are 0 households needing tenurial upgrading. They comprise 0% of the housing stock. There are, likewise, households needing upgrading of various basic services; to wit: 79 households (3.99% of housing stock) need upgrading of power facility, 703 households (35.48%) needs upgrading of water facility; 90 households (4.54%) needs upgrading of sanitary facility; 50 households (2.52%) needs upgrading of roads; 1,263 households (63.74%) needs upgrading of drainage; 1,111 households (56.07%) needs upgrading of garbage collection and disposal. There is also an estimated 1.46% or 29 units that need structural improvement or upgrading in order to make these houses safe for habitation.

PROTECTIVE SERVICES

The local police and the fire fighting force primarily undertake the protective services and maintenance of peace, order and public safety.
The Tunga Police Station had a total strength of thirty (30) personnel consisting of One (1) Police Commissioned Officers; twenty-five (25) Police Non-Commissioned Personnel; and four (4) Non- Uniformed Personnel. This translated to a ratio of 1:253, which means that each policeman in the locality was serving at least 253 inhabitants. Such was high the standard policeman to population ratio of 1:1,000.
Tunga Fire Station had a personnel strength of 9, which translated to a ratio of 1 fireman: 843 population. While this ratio is already an improvement from last year’s ratio of 1:1,264, clearly there is no gap in the manpower requirement considering that the standard ratio is 1 fireman to 2,000 population. The 9 personnel were all stationed in the BFP station located at the Tunga Municipal Grounds occupying an area of 300 sq. m.
There are also barangay tanods stationed and mobilized in all barangays supporting the local police force in maintaining peace and order in the locality. In terms of building and facilities for protective services, a police station and a fire station are located both in the municipal compound, and a municipal jail is within the police station. To facilitate the delivery of services and provide immediate action when circumstances demands, the local police force is equipped with one (1) patrol vehicles and the fire-fighters are equipped with one (1) mini-fire truck.
The comparative crime incidence by barangay for the period of 2017 to 2018 indicates a decrease of 26.09% in the total crime volume compared to the previous year. However, there was an increase of 33.33% on RIR to Physical Injuries attributed to the rise in the number of vehicular accidents as well as the increase in the accomplishments on Special Laws and other non-index crimes (e.g. illegal logging & illegal gambling, etc.).
t was observed that there was no recorded or zero crime incidence in barangay Banawang (Rural) for the past two (2) years. In barangay Santo Niño (Urban) there was also a zero-crime incidence in 2018. It was in barangay Astorga and barangay Balire that their crime incidence remains in volume for the past two (2) years. However, in barangay San Roque there was no recorded crime in 2017 but in 2018 there were four (4) crime incidents inclusive the Consummated Violation of PD 1602 (Illegal Gambling).

ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

The local economy of Tunga is basically agricultural. About 46.00% of gainful workers rely on crop production and farm labor for livelihood and sustenance. Agricultural lands comprise 84.99% of the total land area of the municipality or an approximate area of 747.52 hectares. Coconut occupies about 67.12% of the total agricultural lands, followed by palay at 23.34%, while other crops occupies only 9.34%. The total peso-value of the agricultural crop production in 2019 is estimated to be P38,815,098.56.
Coconut, the local commercial export crop is the primary crop being produced constituting 65.97% of the total peso-value of the total agricultural crop production. The total estimated peso-value of the entire agricultural crops produced and the yield is estimated at 1,048.64 metric tons of copra in 2019.
Palay, the staple food of many Filipino, rank second in terms of volume produced. In 2019, a total of 629.95 metric tons of palay was produced where the average yield per hectare per year is 3,610 kilograms. The supply of palay is sufficient enough to meet the demand of the population in the municipality. Banana and cassava rank third and fourth in terms of peso value with 4.52% and 4.51% of the total peso-value of total crop production. The local production of fruits, vegetables and legumes is estimated at 182.05 metric tons while the root crop production is at 70.78 metric tons in 2019.
Poultry and livestock are secondary sources of income of most farming families in Tunga. Swine and chicken whether native or hybrid is raised by more families compared to the other species of livestock and fowls. Swine are usually grown in the backyard for very small-scale commercial purposes with breeding stocks ranging from 2 to less than 7 breeders. The present cattle population in the municipality is still very miniscule. Carabaos are usually raised and utilized for farm labor as substitute to tractors but there are those who sell carabaos to traders. Native and hybrid chicken are either raised for household consumption or sold in the neighborhood or in the market whenever the family is in need of additional cash. Few families raise goats and other domestic food animals either for commercial or domestic consumptions. The total peso-value of livestock and poultry production in 2019 is estimated at P30,981,500. There were 2,158 swine, 9,064 chickens, 360 ducks, 754 carabaos, 369 goats and 67 cattle produced.
Carabao, rank first which constitutes 60.84% of the total estimated peso-value of the entire value per poultry and livestock. However, the municipality produced a remarkable number of head for chicken at 9,064 but it only comprises at third in terms of total value production at 7.31%. Swine consistently ranked second in terms of total value production of P6,474,000.00 or at 20.90% and a total number of heads produced at 2,158 heads. The local value production of poultry is estimated at P2,356,000.00 (7.60%) while the livestock value production is at P28,625,500.00 or at 92.40% of the percent total.
Various support infrastructures to agriculture are in place catering to the needs of farmers and agricultural workers. Agricultural farms facilities are mostly for palay and HVCC production. These include hand tractors, sprayers, irrigation system, solar and mechanical dryers, threshers, rice mills and storage facilities, and farm-to-market roads.

TRADE, INDUSTRY, AND TOURISM

There are 140 registered businesses from the tertiary sector in 2019 which are engaged in trade, transportation, finance and business service, and community, social and personal services. Majority of these establishments are wholesale and retail stores selling various kinds of merchandise including meat, fish and vegetable dealers. There are also service shops, eateries, bakeries, food processors, drugstore, and amusement centers and video shops. Buying stations of copra, rice mill and gasoline/refilling stations are also thriving. Trading and business transaction in Tunga are concentrated mainly at the Central Business District (CBD) in the town center. The highlights of CBD are the Tunga Public Market, Tunga Central School, Tunga Social Hall, Municipal Hall, and the line of commercial establishments where commodity trading stations, wholesale and retail variety stores, financial institutions and service shops are found.
Industries in Tunga are primarily agriculture-based. In 2019, there are only 8 registered establishments belong to the secondary sector where five are rice mills, one is engaged in construction, and two are copra buying stations. Several home-based food and meat processors, local sausages and meat processing. Most of the existing local industries are light and generate non-hazardous wastes.
In 2018, there was an increase of 36 business establishment comprising a percentage rate of 29.50% for a total of 158 registered businesses establishment. And in 2019, it went down at a rate of 6.33% or a total of 10 businesses establishments.
The employment rate in 2019 is 95.7% while the labor force participation rate is at 61.5% 1 . Of the documented 2,141 gainful workers in 2010, 27.42% are laborers and unskilled workers, 23.45% are farmers and forestry workers, 6.49% are trade and related workers, 8.92% are either government or non- government organization workers, managers, proprietors and supervisors while 9.11% are service and sales workers. In terms of place of work, 82.50% of gainful workers works in the same municipality, 8.36% works in a different municipality, 3.24% in a different province while 5.90% works in a foreign country. By major kind of business or industry, most of Tunga’s gainful workers or 41.84% are employed in agriculture, followed by 11.72% that are in transportation and storage, 9.76% wholesale and retail trade, 8.22% are in construction and 6.26% are in activities of public administrative and defence. By class of workers, 38% of gainful workers worked for private business/enterprise/farm, 32% are self-employed without any paid employee, 12.3% worked for government/government corporation, 10.32% worked without any pay in own family farm or business while 4.67% worked for private households (domestic services)
Tunga has many potential tourist spots varying from natural parks, viewing areas along Tunga and Naliwatan Rivers. The famous tourism attractions in the municipality are the Beengo Farm, St. Anthony of Padua Roman Catholic Church, Aurora’s Garden Farm and Resort, Naliwatan River Cottages and some agricultural demo farms. Entering the town from the south, two rivers, 200 meters apart from each other, cut through the poblacion and its barangays. Water flows from the mountains of south-eastern barangays of the town of Carigara all the way to the town of Barugo, Tunga’s mother municipality, in northwest direction. The Tunga River and Naliwatan River are part of what makes Tunga distinct.
There are several tourist accommodations and facilities in Tunga. The Aurora’s Garden Farm and Resort have lodging rooms, cottages, eatery and swimming pool ideal for rest and recreation while the Beengo farm has also a couple of rooms for their accommodation and treat their guests with native food e.g. fern salad and “lupak”. Also to be found in Tunga, Leyte is the famous “Itros Chicharon” or deep fried crackers made of dried carabao hide is a promising industry of the municipality. Chicharon is identified as the “OTOP” product of the town. Because of this, it is hoped that this kind of industry will improve and its market outlet will increase thus making the product known to the national market. Aside from chicharon, some barangays are engaged in cottage industries such as mat weaving, basket making and winnower/salakot making.
The local tourism industry has a great potential since ecological tourism is the trend worldwide and the national government intends to develop Leyte as a major hub for tourists. Given the variety of natural tourist spots in the municipality and its strategic location, Tunga can be a convergence area of foreign and domestic tourists and visitors.

DRRM

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

The risk areas in the municipality are the riverbanks, the catchment basin of Tunga River and Naliwatan River and the hills with steep slopes in barangay Banawang, Tunga, Leyte

FLOOR PRONE AREAS

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Mines and Geosciences Bureau Regional Office No. 8 (DENR-MGB VIII) conducted a landslide and flood assessment and mapping (1:10,000 scale) within the Municipality of Tunga, Leyte on October 24-31, 2013. The assessment is in line with the government’s efforts aimed at reducing, if not, totally mitigating the destructive effects and impacts of natural hazards on the populace. Comprising the geohazard assessment team are, Mr. Vincent G. Gascal and Ms. Leah Mae Marie H. Gegare, geologists; Mr. Francisco G. Canuda, Geologic aide; Jose M. Dizon, Cartographer; Gladys M. Legaspi, Data Encoder; Ronald A. Impang Jr., Computer Operator; Ronel S. Aloro Service, vehicle driver, all from the MGB VIII regional office. The team particularly covered all eight (8) barangays of the municipality down to the purok and sitio level.
The flood susceptibility rating parameters are as follows:
  • High: Areas likely to experience flood heights of greater than 1 meter and/or flood duration of more than 3 days. These areas are immediately flooded during heavy rains of several hours; include landforms of topographic lows such as active river channels, abandoned river channels and areas along river banks; also prone to flash floods.
  • Moderate: Areas likely to experience flood heights of 0.5 to 1 meter and/or flood duration of 1 to 3 days. These areas are subject to widespread inundation during prolonged and extensive heavy rainfall or extreme weather condition. Fluvial terraces, alluvial fans, and in filled valleys are areas moderately subjected to flooding.
  • Low: Areas likely to experience flood heights of less than 0.5 meter and/or flood duration of less than 1 day. These areas include low hills and gentle slopes. They also have sparse to moderate drainage density.

The MGB Team assessments:
  • Two (2) barangays have high flood susceptibility – San Antonio and San Vicente
  • Two (2) barangays have moderate flood susceptibility – Astorga and Banawang
  • Four (4) barangays have low flood susceptibility – Balire, Santo Niño, San Pedro and San Roque

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

Historical and current extreme weather/climate event that have affected the municipality include El Nino related droughts and La Nina- related floods. Tunga is also is exposed to tropical cyclones and associated maximal values of 24-hour rains and winds, particular during the northeast monsoon season from October to February. From the period 1948 to 2006, there were 33 tropical cyclones that crossed the Province of Leyte or an average of one tropical cyclone every two years. For the same period, the number of tropical cyclone which crossed the province and 100 kilometers from boundaries was 140 tropical cyclones or an average of five every two years 3 One of the most intense tropical cyclone that directly crossed the municipality was Typhoon Yolanda on November 8, 2013 with a peak intensity of 315 kilometer per hour winds.
In 2020, projected temperature increase is 0.9 0C during the month of December to February, 1.2 0C in the quarter from March to May, 1.1 0C during the 3-month period from June to August and 1.0 0C again from September to November. The highest increase in mean temperature is definitely during its warmest summer months. The projections for mean temperature increase in 2050 are quite higher with 1.8 0C, 2.3 0C, 2.2 0C and 1.9 0C in December to February, March to May, June to August, and September to November respectively. The highest projected increase is during the warmest months of March, April and May and also during the months of June, July and August
On the other hand, the projected increase in rainfall volume at 2020 climate change scenarios ranges from negative (-) 8.9% in March to May to 9.5% in June to August. The middle values were projected at 7.4% in September to November and 3% in the quarter of December to February. Projected increase in rainfall in Tunga in 2050 are higher with 9.4% in December to February, 19.6% in July to August, and 19.5% in September to November. The warm months of March to May will have a 18.9% decrease. A 19% increase in rainfall volume in June to August would most likely result to an increase of 200 mm rainfall volume in 2050.
Indicated in the results of extreme daily temperature and rainfall- trends analysis is that the number of hot days and warm nights are increasing, with the number of cool days and cold night decreasing. Total rainfall shows an increasing trend, with also an increase in the number or frequency and intensity of extreme rain events. These indicate increasing maximum and minimum temperatures coupled with increasing rainfall and thus increasing flooding risk. Climate expert identified the following future risks:
  • Substantially increased rainfall, especially during the southwest monsoon (June to August), more flooding, particularly from June to August and even September
  • Longer dry seasons with even less rainfall than at present level
  • Higher temperatures, bringing more evaporation and increased water requirements
  • Rain-fed agricultural areas will be severely affected
  • Harvested/collected rainwater will become less and groundwater sources will become lower
  • Standing crops could be unable to withstand flooding during the wetter southwest monsoon months

INFRASTRUCTURE

The existing road networks of Tunga provide access to all its rural barangays to the urban center. The Maharlika Highway is a main road artery linking the municipality to other places in the Philippines. The existing roads are classified into national, provincial, municipal and barangay roads. The national road has a length of 2.800 kilometers stretching from Barugo, Leyte at barangay Abango and Tunga, Leyte at barangay Balire boundary in the north to Jaro, Leyte at barangay Hiagsam and Tunga, Leyte at barangay San Vicente boundary in the south. The provincial road in the municipality includes the Tunga-Barugo road to Amahit, Tunga-Barugo Road to Can-isak, Tunga-Carigara road via San Roque/San Antonio to Binibihan, Tunga-Carigara road via San Antonio to Binibihan, Tunga-Carigara road via Balire to Cogon and Tunga-Jaro road via San Vicente to Mag-aso with a total length of 11.250 kilometers. The existing roads within the poblacion are municipal roads with a total length of 2.240 kilometers. The roads classified as barangay roads have a total length of 4.320 kilometers. The longest road in the entire municipality is the San Vicente – Banawang road leading to Pitogo, Barugo, Leyte with a total length of 4.400 kilometers. The total length of the road network in the municipality is 20.610 kilometers excluding the proposed Astorga-Banawang road with an estimated length of 5.200 kilometers.
As to the type of road surface in 2018, 100% of the national roads are Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP) and with Asphalt Armoring at Maharlika Highway. Higher percentage of the whole length of the provincial roads and municipal roads are concreted at 81.47% and 85.27%, respectively. Only 59.49% of barangay roads are concreted while the remaining 40.51% are unpaved with gravel and earth surfacing. There are five (5) bridges in the municipality and the two (2) of which is along the national roads. Three (3) bridges are spillways reinforced by culverts. The two (2) bridges along the national highway has 15-ton load capacity and on the state of repair and expansion since the implementation of the widening program of national roads by the DPWH.
The mode of transportation in the inter-barangay mobility of people and products are mainly tricycles, motorcycles (habal-habal) and trucks. Tricycles are the most common mode of public transportation in the town proper. A road network system connects almost all the barangays to the Maharlika Highway and other national roads traversing the town. The municipality is yet to establish a land transportation facilities which include a permanent public transport terminal for jeepneys, van and tricycles. There are two gas refilling stations in the municipality located at barangay San Roque of this municipality. There are also automotive repair and vulcanizing shops for emergency and minor vehicle repairs.
Electricity in the municipality is distributed to the eight (8) barangays of the municipality through the Leyte Electric Cooperative III (LEYECO III), the local electric cooperative servicing the nine (9) municipalities in Northern Leyte, which is located at barangay San Roque, Tunga, Leyte. There is a total of 1,525 connections in the municipality as of March 31, 2020, of which 1,282 are residential, 70 are commercial, 16 are industrial, 23 are public buildings, 4 are for street lighting and 130 are BAPA consumers. The cost of electricity per kilowatt hour by type of consumer is 10.19 for residential and BAPA consumers and 8.21 for commercial, industrial, public building and street lighting users. About 95.49% of households of Tunga have electricity as of March 31, 2020.
The 2019 water facilities in Tunga are categorized into Level I, Level II and Level III water supply system. Of the total 1,953 households documented in 2019, there are 41.27% with Level I water supply system of which 386 households are using deep wells, 396 water pumps and 24 using developed spring. About 45.52% of households have piped-in water supply. Fifty-six (56) percent of urban households have Level III water connection. In terms of access to toilets, 74% of households have sanitary toilets, 21.6% have unsanitary toilets while 4.4% have no toilets.

ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

LAND USE

Agricultural lands dominate the landscape of the municipality with a total aggregate area of 747.52 hectares or 84.99% of the total land area. The agricultural lands are primarily devoted to permanent crops of palay, coconut and other crops. Vegetables, citrus, fruit trees, bananas and root crops are either found in areas not planted to permanent crops or serves as intercrop on coconut lands. Agricultural lands can be found in all barangays except in the urban barangays of San Antonio and Santo Niño.
Urban use areas comprise only 4.80% of the total land area or 42.20 hectares. Residential areas covers 11.18 hectares, followed by roads and infrastructures with 13.133 hectares, institutional areas with 3.32 hectares and commercial areas with 1.61 hectares. The banks or easement of rivers and creeks are categorized under water uses and covers 29.70 hectares or 3.38% of the total land area. Categorized under other uses are cemeteries with 1.70 hectares, dumpsite/sanitary landfills with 0.53 hectares and vacant lot with zero hectare as per the Municipal Assessor’s Office of the municipality.

WATER RESOURCES

Water resources are abundant in Tunga. The most prominent water resource is the extensive river system of the municipality. The sources of the creeks and streams, which are the main feeders of the river network, are springs which are located in the upland and hilly landscapes of volcanic hill landforms of Carigara, Leyte. The total length of rivers is 8 kilometers, the total length of creeks is 0.50 kilometers and there is 0.20 kilometers of dry creek.
Entering the town from the south, two rivers, 200 meters apart from each other, cut through the poblacion and its barangays. Water flows from the mountains of south-eastern barangays of the town of Carigara all the way to the town of Barugo, Tunga’s mother municipality, in northwest direction. The Tunga River and Naliwatan River are part of what makes Tunga distinct. These two rivers are pristine, although it is general knowledge that families who do not have adequate toilet facilities now use the river for their hygiene and sanitation needs. While womenfolk of the town have traditionally done the family washing in the river, both rivers have been kept clean and pristine over time. The easements of Tunga and Naliwatan Rivers and creeks with an approximate area of 29.70 hectares are also considered as protection lands.
The present attitude of farmers towards crop production is already depleting the soil quality. High yielding variety seeds that are dependent on a large quantity of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides are utilized thereby upsetting the soil pH, fouling the air quality and contaminating the creeks and streams due to the over reliance to pesticides. Thus, even endemic fishes in the rice paddies, rivers and other inland waters are already gone. The mono-cropping practices and inappropriate farming technologies have aggravated further the already deteriorating state of the agricultural production areas.
In the built-up/urban areas the concentrations of human settlements, commerce, industry and public and private services are found. It is also the educational centers are situated as well as the seat of the governance of the municipality. This concentration of the human activity in the valley floor affects the lowland environment. It is a must that proper and appropriate waste disposal, farming practices and use of environmentally friendly products must be affected to negate the accumulation of pollution in the soil and water.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

In built-up areas, the most pressing environmental concern is the increasing volume of solid waste being generated by the growing number of household and commercial establishments. The per capita waste generation is rising as more Tungan-ons adopt a consumerist lifestyle and prefer disposable or single- use products and non-biodegradable packaging materials. A waste characterization study in 2016 showed that a high volume of biodegradable wastes is equivalent to 61%, it is followed by recyclables wastes which is 31%. A residual waste of the entire municipality is only 6% from the total waste generated, while special waste is only 2%. The municipality must give priority on diverting biodegradable and recyclable wastes since it comprises the large volume of the municipality’s wastes.
The LGU of Tunga has over the years been implementing programs for solid waste management and urban area beautification. Collection and transport of solid waste are provided in the urban barangays and three rural barangays by a fleet of a lone LGU garbage truck on scheduled basis. A final disposal facility is maintained at a 0.522-hectare site in Barangay San Roque, Tunga, Leyte.
The open dumpsite has started implementing its closure and rehabilitation plan. Closure of said dumpsite would be an advantage to the municipal government of Tunga because it means that the LGU is complying the mandates of R.A. 9003 especially on the prohibition of operating an open/controlled dumpsite. There would be no more leachate generation that would contaminate the ground water.

INSTITUTION

Local governance is divided into two major local government functions namely local administration and local legislation. The overall local administrative functions are assumed by the mayor specifically the implementation of the local policies and development plans and the supervision and control over the entire local government personnel including the local police force. The local government policies, program, projects and activities are carried out with the backstop of all concerned departments. The formulation and enactment of local policies in the form of ordinances and resolutions is the function of the Sangguniang Bayan composed of the vice-mayor as the presiding officer, eight elected councilors and two ex-officio members. The municipal federation president of the Kabataang Barangay and the municipal president of the League of Barangays are the two ex-officio members of the Sangguniang Bayan. The Sangguniang Bayan members hold also positions as chairpersons or members of different working committees of the local legislative council and assigned to a cluster of barangays to monitor community affairs and the implementation of different programs, projects and activities of the municipality and the barangays.
The functional structure of the local government unit is separated into executive and legislative offices wherein both branches observe some levels of autonomy as a way of practicing separation of powers and checks and balances. The major offices are the Office of the Mayor, the Office of the Sangguniang Bayan, the Municipal Treasury Office, the Municipal Assessor’s Office, the Office of the Municipal Accountant, the Office of the Municipal Budget Officer, the Municipal Planning and Development Office, the Office of the Local Civil Registrar, the Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office, the Municipal Environmental and Natural Resources Office and the four key service offices namely the Municipal Health Office, the Municipal Agriculture Office, the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office and the Office of the Municipal Engineer.
Under the Office of the Mayor are the Secretary to the Mayor, the Clerks and the Human Resource Management Officer. Attached to this office also are the Business and Licensing Section, and the Market and Slaughterhouse Section. The Secretary to the Mayor acts as the executive secretary setting-up appointments and documents and secures records and minutes of meetings involving the local chief executive, prepares communications and entertains visitors in the office. The Human Resource Management Office secures personnel profile and coordinates with the Personnel Selection Board and the local office of the Civil Service Commission regarding placement, appointments, promotion and career information assistance of local government personnel and also the office in the preparation of payrolls. The attached sections at the Office of the Mayor namely the Municipal Permits and Licensing Section process permits and licenses of business establishments, tricycles, bicycles and other business entities. The Market and Slaughterhouse Section oversee the operations of the public market and the municipal slaughterhouse.
The Office of the Sangguniang Bayan is composed of the Office of the Vice- Mayor and the Sangguniang Bayan Members and the Office of the Sangguniang Bayan Secretary. The local legislative council function is the formulation, preparation and approval of municipal ordinances and resolutions. Local policies enacted originate from the Sangguniang Bayan and the Office of the Sangguniang Bayan through the secretary of the local legislative council keep and secure all municipal ordinances and resolutions passed and approved.
The Municipal Treasurer’s Office assumes the local revenue collection and disbursement while the Municipal Assessor’s Office administers the appraisal and assessment of real properties for valuation and tax purposes. The Office of the Budget Officer prepares the municipal budget and reviews the budget prepared by the different barangays of the municipality. The Office of the Municipal Accountant assumes the nitty-gritty work of bookkeeping, installation of financial system for internal control, secures financial books and prepares the regular financial records. These local offices have functions that deal with revenue generation and fiscal management.
The Municipal Planning and Development Office and the Office of the Municipal Engineer share and coordinate their tasks directly on development planning, project feasibility study and project proposal preparation, engineering design, infrastructure project implementation and supervision and on project monitoring and evaluation. The Local Civil Registry Office maintains records and documents on birth and death of people in the municipality and civil cases. The Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office is tasked with setting the direction, development, implementation and coordination of disaster risk management programs. The Municipal Environmental and natural Resources Office is tasked in implementation of the Solid Waste Management PPAs, Garbage Collection and Disposal and any other regulations of environmental related activities in the municipality.
The frontline offices of the local government in the delivery of basic public services are the Municipal Agriculture Office, the Municipal Health Office and the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office. The Municipal Agriculture Office task is geared towards agricultural productivity improvement through the provision of goods and services ranging from farm inputs distribution, farm technology extension services and the establishments of demonstration farms, nurseries and on farm pre and post production facilities. The Municipal Health Office provides basic health services on primary health care and public health specifically on maternal and child health care, water and sanitation, nutrition, family planning, expanded program of immunization and preventive medicine. The Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office conducts training and counselling for disadvantage sectors and extends emergency assistance including relief and rehabilitation services during calamities. Protection and welfare of children, youth and disadvantage women, persons with disability and elderly are primary concerns of this office.
In 2018, the total workforce of the Local Government Unit is 91 broken down as follows: 29 career and non-career, 50 job orders and 12 elective officials. There were zero/none for contractual and co-terminus in the past two years.
Tunga is a sixth-class municipality with a total operating income of PhP 45,520,385.35 in 2018. The two revenue sources are local sources and external sources. Locally generated income comprises tax which is 2.33% of the total income and non-tax revenues which is 3.54%. Revenues from external sources consist of share from Internal Revenue Allotment and miscellaneous income (grants and donations) which is 94.13% of the total income in 2018. The municipality’s total expenditures for 2018 totalled PhP 36,581,147.84 which is a 10.85% increase than the expenditures of PhP 33,001,892.43 in 2017. In the preceding period the expenditures were 9.37% lower in 2016 which totalled PhP 30,174,930.64. The largest expense went to general public services at 69.42%, social services at 8.78%, economic & public utility at 7.32%, infrastructure development services at 7.08%, agricultural services at 3.38%, disaster risk reduction and management at 3.21%, and environmental & management services at 0.82%.

Financial Management Indicators

Indicator 2016 2017 2018
Total LGU income (millions) 36.89946743 42.11718727 45.52038535
Proportion of tax revenue to total income 2.55 1.94 2.33
Proportion of non-tax revenue to total income 3.64 3.19 3.54
Proportion of tax and non-tax revenue to total income 6.19 5.13 5.87
Actual RPT collection (millions) - - 0.69147690
Actual IRA collection (millions) 34.617624 39.954048 42.846108